Cherry on a personal plot
Stone fruit crops are invariably popular with amateur gardeners in all climatic zones, including the Northwest. But the greatest interest among them is cherry.
The popularity of this culture is explained by its many advantages: early ripening of fruits (following strawberries), which makes it possible to bridge the gap in obtaining fresh fruit and berry products, high taste and technological qualities of fruits, their dietary and medicinal properties, etc.
The northern border of the area of possible cultivation of cherries in the Non-Black Earth Region runs along the line St. Petersburg - Vologda - Kirov. Cherry has no industrial value here, but amateur gardeners have long been growing it on their plots, as evidenced by the centuries-old experience of cultivating this crop in the Pskov, Novgorod and Leningrad regions. There are known successful experiments in its cultivation in the conditions of the Karelian Isthmus up to the Vyborg - Sosnovo line, where the centers of cherry cultivation have been preserved until now.
The growth and fruiting of cherries is influenced by a number of factors, the main of which are soil and nutrients, heat, moisture, light.
In the North-West, cherry grows best on light loamy, well-drained and heated soils rich in nutrients. Heavy, moist loams, deep sands and peat bogs are undesirable for her. Cherry does not like acidic soils, the reaction of the soil solution is most favorable for it, close to neutral (pH 6-7).
The soil should be moderately moist. The need for moisture is especially evident in the spring and early summer periods, when flowering occurs, active growth of leaves and shoots. Lack of moisture in the soil during the flowering period causes a strong fall of the ovaries. By the middle of summer, moisture consumption decreases, and by autumn it increases again due to the active growth of roots.
Excess moisture is also unacceptable, since when waterlogged, growth stops, roots die off, leaves turn yellow, and the top of the tree crown dries up. Therefore, reclamation work is carried out on waterlogged soils, excess water is removed.
Cherry will give high yields in conditions of sufficient illumination inside the crown, a lack of light contributes to the rapid death of branches, and fruiting is transferred to the periphery of the crown.
The determining factor is the temperature factor. Cherry grows well and bears fruit only at an average daily temperature of + 15 ° C. In winter, it suffers if the air temperature drops below -30 ° C. In many varieties, the aboveground part freezes. The alternation of thaws with frosts leads to freezing of fruit buds, which do not bloom in spring and fall off.
During the period of returnable spring frosts, when plants are preparing for flowering or blooming, flower pistils, blossoming buds and even young ovaries die. All this indicates that warmer, protected areas should be chosen for cherries.
In the garden for cherries, a place is allocated on the southern side of the buildings, near the fences, where a warmer microclimate is created and a lot of snow accumulates. If apple trees grow nearby, then the cherry is also placed on the south side so that there is no shading.
Before planting, the soil on the site is preliminarily improved. To this end, under the autumn digging on medium-fertile soils, 1 sq. meter: organic fertilizers - 10-15 kg, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, about 100 g each. On acidic soils, liming is carried out separately (300-600 g of lime, depending on the acidity and composition of the soil).
It is better to plant cherries in spring, especially in the North-West, where the danger of freezing of young plants in winter is most likely. The planting technique is the same as that of an apple tree. Pits are dug 40-50 cm deep, 70-80 cm in diameter.The distance between trees in a row is 2 m, between rows - 3 m. 10-15 kg of organic fertilizers, 150-300 g of phosphorus fertilizers and 40-80 g potash (depending on the type of fertilizer). Instead of potash, it is good to use ash (500 g).
Seedlings purchased in the fall for spring planting are buried in a trench 30-35 cm deep for the winter. They are laid at an angle of 30-45 degrees, crowns to the south. Roots and stem to lateral branches are covered with earth, tamped tightly and watered. Spruce branches are placed on the crown - in order to avoid damage to the seedlings by mice and in order to protect them from freezing.
It should be borne in mind that most cherry varieties are self-fertile, therefore, for their better pollination, several varieties must be planted on the site.
When growing cherries, the soil in the garden is kept clear of weeds, loose and sufficiently moist. During the growing season, 3-4 loosening is carried out. In the fall, the soil is dug to a depth of 15-20 cm, and near the trunk - by 10 cm.
Fertilizers are applied for digging in the trunk circles. Their rate depends on the age and condition of the plants, the content of nutrients in the soil. In the first three to four years after planting, they are limited only to spring fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers (20 g of urea per 1 square meter) and subsequent incorporation into the soil. During the period of entry into fruiting per 1 sq. meter annually make: manure or compost - up to 10 kg, urea - 25 g, simple superphosphate - up to 60 g or double - up to 30 g, potassium chloride - up to 20 g or wood ash 200-300 g.
During the period of mass fruiting, the rate of organic fertilizers is increased to 15-20 kg, the rate of mineral fertilizers is the same. As a rule, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the spring, phosphorus and potash fertilizers - in the fall, organic fertilizers can be applied in spring and autumn. The introduction of lime is carried out periodically - after 4-5 years or fractionally - after 2-3 years in doses corresponding to the level of soil acidity.
As necessary, liquid feeding is carried out with solutions of slurry or poultry droppings. In the first half of summer, foliar top dressing with urea (40 g per 10 l of water) is effective.
One of the most important agricultural techniques is the correct systematic pruning. Distinguish between pruning of young and fruiting trees and bushy and tree-like cherries. Immediately after planting, in young plants, the crown is well laid naturally, therefore, pruning is carried out minimally, selecting the 5-7 strongest skeletal branches directed in different directions by the apple tree type and subordinating them to the central conductor, the top of which should be 15- higher than the ends of the upper branches. 20 cm. The remaining lateral weak branches are cut out so that they do not thicken the crown. First of all, the lower branches are removed, forming a bole with a height of 35-40 cm.
Fruiting cherries, as a rule, are cut much less; cutting of branches and shortening on one of the lateral branches is more often used. Avoid causing a large number of wounds on the central conductor and skeletal branches. To do this, some of the branches are not removed to the ring, but cut to the side branch. If the soil is poorly maintained, strong pruning will cause gum leakage.
There are some differences in pruning bush cherry and tree cherry. In bush cherry, the crown forms well naturally. When a tree enters fruiting, the purpose of pruning is to lighten the crown. With good growth (30-40 cm), they are limited to thinning. Cut into a ring thickening, going inside the crown, rubbing, intertwining branches.
With a decrease in the length of annual growths to 15-20 cm, exposing and drooping branches, rejuvenating pruning is carried out - the skeletal branches are shortened over the first lateral branching in the growth of last year (weak rejuvenation). When growth decays and branching stops, a strong rejuvenating pruning of branches is applied to the point where the formation of lateral branches has ceased. Strongly thickened trees are not cut immediately, but within two to three years. The height of bush cherry is limited to 2-2.5 meters.
In a cherry tree, the skeleton of the tree is formed by laying the lower tier of 3-4 branches. Subsequent skeletal branches are left after 20-30 cm. During the fruiting period, with good growth, the intertwining branches are thinned out in the same way as in bush cherry. In addition, both perennial and annual branches are shortened to enhance branching and the formation of strong bouquet branches.
With a decrease in the strength of growth, the beginning of the denudation of the tree, the skeletal branches are shortened by 2-3-year-old wood or even a bouquet twig, which then sprouts into the shoot. When the growth decays and the tree ages, it is greatly shortened - by 4-7-year-old wood. Be sure to cut out all dry and diseased branches. The sections are cleaned with a knife and covered with garden var.
In grafted plants, both bushy and tree-like cherries, all formed wild growth is removed.
When caring for trees, in order to prevent freezing of various parts of plants, preventive measures are taken: selection of winter-hardy varieties, applying phosphorus-potassium fertilizers at the end of summer, carrying out autumn water-charging irrigation in dry years, watering and spraying the crown of a tree with water during the flowering period, etc.
To combat sunburn and frost, in late autumn, whitewash of boles, trunks and thick skeletal branches is carried out. It is sometimes repeated in winter or early spring. For whitewashing, 3 kg of fresh lime and 2 kg of clay are diluted in a bucket of water (10 l), a little wood glue or laundry soap is added for better adhesion. It is best to use a special paint available from hardware stores.
A positive result is the pruning of boles and lower skeletal branches with an insulating material that protects them from heating and sudden cooling. Tying with spruce legs is effective, which, moreover, protect the bole from rodents.
The damaged parts of the stem, trunk and skeletal branches are protected and coated with garden varnish. In some cases (with severe damage), the strapping of the covered parts is carried out. In case of annular damage to the bark of the boles, when the tree is doomed to death, inoculation is done with a bridge, placing the cuttings around the circumference of the bole, followed by tying the damaged area with plastic wrap.
Compliance with all of the above measures will allow you to get high yields of this valuable fruit crop.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Diseases and pests
Nochka has a very high resistance to coccomycosis, but it can be exposed to other fungal diseases (moniliosis, clotterosporia, scab) in the absence or insufficiency of preventive measures.
Prevention of diseases and pests of cherries
Preventive measures are carried out, as a rule, in early spring and late autumn, during the absence of sap flow. In terms of their composition, these activities differ slightly for different horticultural crops, therefore they are usually carried out simultaneously in the entire garden.
- Collection and destruction of fallen leaves, in which some pests and pathogens usually hibernate.
- Sanitary pruning of dry, diseased and damaged branches.
- If necessary, cleaning of the cracks in the bark, followed by disinfection with a 1% solution of copper or iron sulfate and processing with garden varnish on a natural basis (beeswax, lanolin, etc.).
- Digging of near-trunk circles with overturning of the layer in order to raise upward pests that have settled for wintering in the soil layer.
- Whitewashing of trunks and skeletal branches with lime.
- Tying the trunks of young trees with roofing felt to protect against hares.
- Insecticide (insect control) and fungicide (antifungal) treatments:
- DNOC - in early spring, once every three years. From the vast majority of diseases and pests.
- Nitrafen (insecticide and fungicide at the same time, broad-spectrum) - in early spring.
- Decis (insecticide) - in early spring and in season when pests appear.
- Copper sulfate 3% solution - in late autumn and early spring.
- Iron vitriol 5% solution - in late autumn and early spring.
- Bordeaux mixture 3% solution - in late autumn and early spring.
- In early spring, trapping belts are installed on the trunk, which will stop the movement of weevils, aphids, and other insects and caterpillars on the crown.
Usually, these measures are enough to prevent the cherry from getting sick and not being attacked by pests. During the season, it is necessary to carefully observe the trees and, if signs of diseases or pests are manifested, take directed actions against them.
Possible diseases, signs and treatment
The gardener needs to know what the signs of disease look like and what to do when they appear.
Clasterosporium disease (perforated spot)
Fungal disease, which usually appears in spring or autumn, because favorable conditions for it are high humidity and air temperatures of 20-25 ° C. Spores of the fungus overwinter in the bark and fallen leaves, and are also spread by insects and wind. It flows quickly. From the appearance of small black dots on the leaves, to their growth in a red-burgundy circle, two weeks pass. Then the parts of the leaf inside the circles dry out and pour out, forming holes. The leaves dry up and fall off.
Two weeks after infection with clasterosporium, holes appear on cherry leaves
If a disease is detected before flowering, you can treat the tree with nitrafen, even if it was already used in early spring. After flowering and during the season, they are treated with biofungicides:
- Horus. Up to three treatments per season. Last no later than seven days before harvest.
- Quadris. Up to three treatments per season. Last 3–5 days before harvest.
- Speed Up to three treatments per season. Last 20 days before harvest.
Moniliosis (monilial burn)
For the first time, spores of the fungus are introduced by bees in the spring during flowering. The fungus through the pistil of the flower droops into the stalk, leaf, shoot. As a result of the defeat, they turn black and sag, the tree looks like burnt. In summer, the fungus manifests itself as fruit rot, affecting the berries, which are mummified. If you do not take action, the tree may die.
The methods and methods of struggle, the drugs used are the same as for clasterosporium disease. In addition, if shoots are damaged, they must be immediately cut out to 20-30 cm of healthy wood, or even “into a ring”. The affected plant parts (flowers, ovaries, leaves, shoots) are immediately collected and destroyed.
Photo gallery: cherry moniliosis
Cherries have their own pests, which are called so: cherry sawfly cherry weevil cherry aphid cherry fly.
Cherry Slime Sawfly
Outwardly, it resembles both a slug and a caterpillar, but, in comparison with the first, it has a smaller size (4-6 cm). There are many varieties of sawflies, but all of them, or rather their larvae, eat away the juicy part of the leaf plate, leaving veins. If not stopped in time, the larvae will eat up most of the leaves, which, as a result, will turn yellow and fall off prematurely. The tree will leave in the winter weakened. The larvae hibernate in the soil, fly out in the spring and lay eggs on already new, young leaves.
The cherry sawfly larva looks like a caterpillar and a slug at the same time
Since the sawfly does not cause significant damage, they usually fight against it with non-chemical means - they collect the larvae by hand, wash it off with a stream of water, dig up the soil in autumn, etc. The use of insecticides is resorted to only in case of mass destruction.
Beetles and weevil larvae overwinter in the soil of the trunk circle.In early spring they come to the surface and climb a tree. Beetles eat flowers, leaves, young shoots. At nights and early in the morning, when the temperature does not rise above + 5–8 ° C, the beetles sit on branches without moving. At this time, they can simply be chickened out on a spread cloth or film, collected and destroyed. But as soon as it gets warmer above 10 ° C, this opportunity will be missed. The beetles will wake up and the trick will not work.
To prevent various beetles, caterpillars, ants from climbing the crown, you can install trapping belts at the bottom of the trunk.
Further, you can only fight with the use of insecticides (Nitrafen, Decis, Fufanon, etc.).
The cherry weevil feeds on flowers, berries and cherry leaves
As you know, ants carry aphids onto a tree. Therefore, first of all, you need to take care of the destruction of anthills on the site and the installation of trapping belts on the tree trunks. In addition, systemic insecticides such as Iskra, Fitoferm are used, which are not toxic to humans and animals.
Ants carry cherry aphids on a tree
It hibernates in the upper layer of soil in the form of a pupa. With the onset of warmth, it goes out and at first feeds on sweet secretions of cherry aphids, after which it lays eggs and the caterpillars hatched from them eat ripe cherries. The top tip is to kill the cherry aphid and you won't have a cherry fly. She simply will have nothing to eat after waking up and she will fly off to other gardens to look for food.
Cherry fly hibernates in the soil of the free circle
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Plants located in the country will help determine the acidity of the earth. Areas where cereals and legumes thrive are ideal for setting up a garden. If there is a lot of sorrel on the ground at the dacha, this means that the soil is acidic enough, which can adversely affect the normal fruiting of trees. You can lower the acidity of the soil if you add lime to it. The program for arranging a garden and a vegetable garden implies a preliminary study of the relief of the site.
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Messages: 12764 Registered: 19.03.2010, 16:39 Interests: Diverse Where from: Moscow SAO dacha outside Istra Thanks: 5558 times Thanked: 8944 times
Re: Sweet cherry
Message from Cousin mom » 09.07.2015, 09:15
Messages: 4120 Registered: 12.04.2010, 09:43 Where from: Far beyond S.-Posad, Lefortovo Thanks: 1261 times Thanked: 2790 times
Re: Sweet cherry
Message from Nyura » 09.07.2015, 09:29
And I have not been freezing something for 7 years now, and it bears fruit very abundantly. And I have no aphids on the cherry at all. What am I doing wrong?
I prune in the summer immediately after harvesting in exact accordance with the explanations of Eremin.
A tree with a height of 5 m does not roll for stone fruits, it cannot be hidden from birds, nor a crop can be properly collected. Again, according to Eremin, we cut / bend everything that is higher than 3 meters.
Well, yes, it’s for nothing that the north of Moscow region, but the microclimate is very favorable, maybe that's why it is. Right now I'm going to take a picture of the already processed tree.
Felt cherry: description
The culture got its name for the characteristic fluff of small villi that covers the leaves, annual shoots, pedicels and even the fruits themselves. Fruiting of the felt cherry begins at the end of June and lasts about a month. For better pollination, it is recommended to plant several varieties of felt cherries side by side.
The plant itself cannot be called a tree - it is rather a shrub with several powerful skeletal branches and a rounded crown of strong thickening. Its height rarely exceeds 2 m, and lignified branches are covered with rough gray-brown thick bark. Felt cherry flower buds are located on annual and perennial shoots, 3 together on a short peduncle, so it seems that the fruits grow directly on the branches.
Berries in the felt variety of cherries are drupes with tender juicy pulp of predominantly sweet taste, occasionally with the appearance of sourness. The color of the fruit can range from pink and white to almost black, and the size of the berries reaches up to 4.5 g.
Fresh fruits contain a lot of vitamin C, sugars, organic acids, but biologically active polyphenols, which help strengthen the capillaries, are of particular value.
Planting Nochka cherries is no more difficult than any other. For an experienced gardener, this will not be difficult. For the novice gardener, below is a step-by-step planting process.
- You need to start by choosing a place where Nochka will grow in the next 20–25 years. It must meet the following conditions.
- Do not stay in lowlands, damp and flooded places. It is best to sit on a slightly elevated, southern or southwestern slope. The optimum slope is 10-15 °.
- It is good if there is natural protection from the wind on the north or north-east side - a house, a fence, a forest.
- The soil should not be acidic or saline. Cherries grow best on slightly acidic or neutral soils.
- Within a radius of 100 m, or better closer, there should be pollinating plants (see above).
- Next, choose the landing date. Optimally, this is early spring, before the start of sap flow. It can be planted in the fall, but only in the southern regions, where there is a low risk of freezing of a poorly established seedling.
- Purchase of a seedling. It is best to do this in the fall, when there is more choice and the quality of planting material is better. Signs of a good seedling.
- It must be one-year, two-year is allowed. You should not take an older one, because it takes root worse, it takes longer to bear fruit. The height of the seedling is usually 0.7–1.3 m.
- The root system is well formed, without damage or signs of disease.
- The bark is smooth, clean, without cracks, spots, gum lesions.
A cherry seedling must have a well-developed root system.
The neck of a cherry seedling must not be buried; it must be 3-5 cm above ground level